As a human, we have two-side of roles. They are we as an individual and we as the part of a society. In order to interact to the other human in society, we use language as the tool. “Language is a way to communicate ideas comprehensibly from one person to another in such a way that the other will be able to act exactly accordingly. The transportation of such ideas could be acquired by either verbal expression and signing with gestures and images”. The language absolutely should be understood by the members. It is like an agreement which is made to link one and the other. As the result, the members in the society must learn the agreed language to keep their existence. If one of the members can not use the tool, it would kick him out from the society.
Commonly, language is used to exchange a message between at least two people. When someone wants to tell some information, he uses language as the medium. It can be in written or spoken language. According to Kamil Wisnewski, the function of language as communication tool is very important “This function would probably be pointed at by most language users without major consideration. Indeed it is in all likelihood most commonly used language function by majority of speakers. Requesting, apologizing, informing, ordering as well as promising and refusing are all reasons for communicating our ideas”. However, in daily life, language is not used only for the device of communication. People often use language as a kind of technique in carrying a certain implied message. For example, when we come to a room which is very hot, we say “It’s very hot here”. In fact, it’s a request to our friend to open the window or switch on the air conditioner. That’s the other usage of language. We can ask something without point to the object directly.
Moreover, language as the technical is also used in political matter. In Indonesia, we still remember the case of Bibit Slamet Rianto and Candra Muhammad Hamzar. They are two of Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi leaders which are trapped in a bribary case. While most of Indonesians support them to be released from all accusation, it pressure government to stop the case. Finally, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono decide to realse Bibit and Chandra. Instead of command directly the judiciary to realease them, he said in his speech to settle the problem out side the court. Although he didn’t say to release them directly, the effect is absolutely same. In this example, also we can see the language which is used as the technique.
In literature, language is also put as technique. As the product of culture, literature creates as the result of certain society. It contains the characteristic of the society. How they use the language to express something. In literature, also we notice a term called figurative language. This is the language that has second layer meaning. In other words, to catch the meaning implied, we need to dig it deeper. For instance, we can see at an idiom “butterfingers”. This word is not aimed to describe a person who smears his finger with butter; it has meaning a person who often let something fall from his grip. Therefore, it is one of technique in poetic rules to use a language as beautiful as possible.
Moreover, in daily conversation, in order to creating a joke, sometimes people manipulate a language. This reason is used to make something funny or tricky. If the speaker and the listener do not have the same semantic concept, the utterance which is stated by the speaker would deceive the listener completely. In this essay, I would like to analyze the language deviation which is used in the Nasreddin Stories. How the story break the rules which are said by Paul Grice about his 4 Maxims: Maxim of Quality, Maxim of Quantity, Maxim or Relevance, and the Maxim of manner.